Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000
BCE. Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the
current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. This was an important city of Persia,
located on the Silk Road.
the Achaemenid Iran, it seems to have been administered as a
sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial
lists of Darius and Xerxes. The Hyrcanians, however, under the
leadership of Megapanus, are mentioned by Herodotus in his list of
Xerxes’ army during the invasion of Greece.
The Buwayhid and Ziyarid dynasties of Persia were from this region.
They were known for the revival of pre-Islamic Persian culture. For
example, Buwayhid leaders entitled themselves as Shahanshah, literally
king of kings, a term used by Sassanid rulers.
The world's tallest brick tower stands in this province. It is the
famous Gonbad-e Qabus, built by a famous Amir of this region.
The name "Hyrcania" is the ancient Greek record of the local name in
Old Persian name Varkana. The capital of Hyrcania was "Zadracarta", the
largest city and site of the "royal palace" of Hyrcania, most probably
located at the great mound of Qal'a-ye Kandan, on the western fringe of
present-day Gorgan city (formerly Astarabad). At the time of Sasanids
Gorgan appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and a province.
Hyrcania became part of the Persian Empire during the reign of Cyrus
the Great (559-530 BC) - the first emperor the first Persian Empire
dynasty - or Cambyses (530-522 BC). It was conquered by Arabs in 8th
century and by Mongols in 13th century.
Gorgan (and in general, the Golestan province), has a world-famous
carpet and rug industry, made by Turkmen. The patterns of these carpets
are derived from the ancient Persian city of Boxara (Bukhara) which is
now located in the Central Asian Republic of Uzbekistan. Jajim carpets
are also crafted in this province.